the musketeers by temperament: ”from the very earliest days of the medical and mental sciences the bodily constitutions of men, especially as those bodily constitutions bear on the mind, have been called the complexions and the temperaments. and the outstanding and distinctive temperaments have been classified and designated from the earliest days as the sanguine temperament, the choleric temperament, the phlegmatic temperament, and the melancholy temperament. not that any man was ever made up of blood and of blood alone, or of choler alone, or of phlegm alone, or of black bile alone. the four temperaments, as they are found in actual and living men, have undergone as many combinations and permutations as there have been individual men and women on the face of the earth. at the same time, some one of the four great temperaments has predominated and has had the upper hand in the construction and constitution of every several man.” from the four temperaments by alexander whyte, 1895.